In his speech to the House of Commons on July 10, 1924, then Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald went so far as to say, “The Egyptian farmer can be entirely satisfied that Sudan`s independence does not mean, because of the agreement we are prepared to conclude, that he will benefit from one less pinch of water than if he had it and if he had it himself.” Letters exchanged on May 7, 1929 must be interpreted within the meaning of this advertisement. You are certainly making a net profit for Egypt. They do so in the teeth of an unbiased neutral expert who did not state that Egypt had no right or maintenance, equity or legal or justified uses to claim as its own “untited” water, which might be necessary to give its 1,900,000 hectares of unfunded fertility. The initiative, founded in 1999, brings together the countries of the Nile basin to develop the river in a cooperative manner, share essential socio-economic benefits and promote peace and security in the region. Both the 1929 and 1959 agreements caused discontent in other Nile states and demands to amend the pact rejected by Egypt. In the past, Egypt has taken an aggressive approach to the Nile River. Cairo regards the Nile as a matter of national security and the declarations continue to contain threats of military measures against Ethiopia if it intervenes in the river as stipulated in the agreements signed in 1929 and 1959. When we recently celebrated Earth Day, it is important that we reflect on the importance of natural resources like the Nile and understand why they are so important, especially for Africa and its long-term development. In fact, 160 million people depend on the waters of this important river for a living. Therefore, effective and sustainable conservation, maintenance and use of Nile waters and resources is a common goal.
This agreement was signed between Egypt and Great Britain, which represented Uganda, Kenya, Tanganjika (now Tanzania) and Sudan. The document gave Cairo the right to veto higher projects on the Nile that would affect its share of water. These bilateral agreements have completely ignored the needs of other coastal countries, including Ethiopia, which supplies between 70 and 80 per cent of the Nile`s waters. As a result, none of the other countries in the Nile basin ever approved the agreement. “To the Italian government: the fact that you have agreed and the fact that you felt it necessary to send us a joint communication on this agreement clearly shows that you intend to exert pressure, which we believe immediately raises an earlier question. This issue, which requires preliminary consideration, must therefore be referred to the League of Nations. But the balagh, the Wafd spokesman, as he is now called in opposition, took a completely different view and published a lengthy critique of the agreement on 18 May. Parliament was not in session when the agreement was signed, so there are no decisive ways to say what Fellah thinks about the case.